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Pistacia integerrima/ Rhzus succedanea Linn( commercial- [AD])
Botanical Name— Rhus succedanea Linn.

Names in different languages
Hindi-Kakada singi; Telugu- Karkata sringi;
Synonyms—Ajasrngi, Kulira visãnikã, Vakrã, Srñgi
Scientific classification: Pistachios make up the genus Pistacia of the family Anacardiaceae. The pistachio, or pistacia, tree is classified as Pistacia vera, Pistacia integerrima, and the turpentine tree as Pistacia terebinthus.

Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

 Caraka            Kãsahara, Hikkanigrahana, Madhura skañdha
Susruta           Kakolyãdi, Padmakãdi
Vagbhata –


       Karkada is the name of the tree producing srngi (gall). People consider this tree as dreadful. It is important to note that Susruta classified it as poisonous tuber.Gall produced by the help of a insect- Dasia aedifactor – (plant produce resin against insect). Mainly effective in children’s diseases.

Varieties & adulterants 
1. Pistacia  chinensis
2. Rhzus succedanea Linn( commercial)
3.  Ajasrngi ,Mesasrngi, Uttamãsrngi  ( controversial- creeper) 
4. Karkatika
5. Karktahvaya
6. Karkatãkhya

It is glabrous tree grown unto 16m, dark grey or blackish bark.
Leaves- 20-25 cm long, with or without terminal leaflet; leaflets 4-5 pairs, lanceolate, coriacious, base oblique.
Flowers- in lateral panicles; male compact, pubescent; female lax, elongate.
Fruit- drupe, globose, dry, stony, broader than long, glabrous, rugose, grey. Seeds with a membranous testa. (Flowers and fruits during March-April).

Distribution & Habitat
North-west Himalayas (Indus to Kumaon) at 400- 2000 m; cultivated in Punjab plains.

Chemical composition It has 60% tanin and 1.21% volatile oil, Fresh hirda, maiphal , tannins.

essential oils, resin, pistacienoic acids A & B, 3— sitosterol, aromadendrene, camphene, caprylic acid, cineol, a— pinene etc.
Leaves & bark— tannins.
Seeds—amino acids, dihydromalvic acid, proteins etc.
Seeds—sterals, triterpenoids etc.
Drupe-oil— pistacin, pistacinin, dihydroquercetin etc.
Rhzus succedanea

Rasa Kasäya, Tikta
Guna Laghu, Ruksa

Virya Usna
Vipãka Katu

Karma Kapha-vatahara, vrsya, Grãhi, Dipana
External use : It is applied on swelling (edema). In pyorrhoea, gargles of decoction is useful, Fowler’s applied on both fresh and chronic wounds
Internal use
Digestive system it is an appetizer. carminative and astringent in nature, thus useful and effective in anorexia, diarrhoea, dysentery.
Respiratory system Because of its bitter and pungent taste it is an expectorant. Helps in hiccoughs. cough and dyspnoea. It strengthens the respiratory membrane inner lining of the surface.

Reproductive system It reduces uterine exudates: thus helps in healing.
Temperature it is used in fever induced by vata and kapha.

Satmikaran Being bitter and hot, it is a hitter tonic rasayan. Useful as rasayan in tuberculosis.
Important Yogas or Formations
Shningyadi churna. Karkatadi churna, Balachatsirbhadra, Balasanjivoni churna (Mixture of Ativisha, Kakadshingi and Nagarmotha, Ativtsha’digestive, Kakadshingi ‘Nagarmntha. Dhatugami.

Dosha Kaphaghna. vatashamak.
Dhatu Rasayani - rasa (fever).
Mala Purisha - constipative.
Srotas : Respiratory system - )dyspnoea and cough - specially in children). Uterus (endometrial).
Age . children upto 3-4 years of age.
Indications— roga. Jvara, Kãsa-vãsa, Hikkã, Trsnã, Chardi, Aruci, Bãla
Part Used— Galls.
Dosage— Powder 4-5 g
Important research work going on
1. CNS depressant activity

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Vãjikarana— Karkatarni kalka should be taken with milk while consuming sugar, ghee and milk as the main diet(A.S.Ut.50).
(2) Vãtaja Kasa—Karkatasrngi powder is given with oil as Anupãna (C.S.Ci. 18).
(3) Kãsa— Karkatasrngi powder may be licked with ghee, sugar and honey followed by milk as Anupana (A.S.Ci.4).

(4) Kapha Chardi— Powder of Mustã and Karkatasrngi is useful (C.S.Ci.20).


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Botanical Name— Celastrus paniculatus willd.


Names in different languages
Hindi-Malkangani; English-Staff tree; Tamil- Valulavai; Malayalam Paluruvam, cheru punnayari

Synonyms— Tejasvini, Katabhi, Pita taila, Supingala, Kãkãndi.
Scientific classification: Staff trees make up the order Celastrales. The typical genus is Celastrus.

Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

 Caraka   Sirovirecana
 Susruta  Arkädi, Adhobhãgahara, Sirovirecana

Vãgbhata  Arkãdi

This drug considered as medya, rasayana , mangment of sidgma kustha & bhagandara. It mentioned in vedic literature .

Varieties & adulterants  - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 

3.Rakta Phanha
5. Kãkãdani(Kãkamardanikã) - Cardiospermum helicacabum Linn.
6. Tejovati— Zanthoxylum budrunga wall.

Celastrus scandens

Celastrus scandens

It is a climbing or scrambling shrub, the young shoots and branches pendulous.
Leaves—glabrous, broadly ovate or obovate, acuminate or acute.
Flowers—unisexual, yellowish-green, borne in terminal, pendulous panicles.
Fruit— capsule, globose, 3-valved, 3-celled, 3-6 seeded. Seeds are enclosed in complete red, ovoid, brown. (Flowers throughout the year).

Distribution & Habitat
   Tropical and subtropical Himalayas upto 1500m (Punjab to Assam) & Bihar and South India

 chemical constituents

Root-bark & stem— pristimerin
Seeds— celapagine, celapanigine, celapanine, celastrol, celastrine, paniculatine,malkanguniol, malkangunin, paniculatadiol, 1-amyrin, beta—sitosterol; acetic, benzoic, formic, linoleic acids etc.


Rasa Katu, Tikta
Guna Tiksna

Virya Usna
 Vipãka Katu

Karma Kapha-vätahara, Dipana, Medhya Rasãyana

Internal use

Nervous system : Improves memory , enhances grasping power. Cow’s ghee and jyotishmati oil mixture is used as a memory enhancer.

Digestive system appetizer. Snigdha and ushna gunas improve peristalsis and are therefore useful in overcoming constipation and abdominal distension (flatulence).

Circulatory system : cardio tonic. improves cardiac output. Therefore useful in bradycardia and oedema, Black oil of jyotishmati is useful in breathlessness; \yellow oil is used in osteoarthritis (external use).
Respiratory system It is used for nasya also useful in asthma and bronchitis.
Urinary system : increase renal circulation ,it acts as a diuretic.
Reproductive system : Aphrodisiac. It is used in infertility (impotency).
Skin : Diaphoretic and cures skin disorders. It is used as antipruritic.
Temperature : diaphoretic, it is used as antipyretic. Within 3-4 hrs. it reduces fever by promoting sweating.

It is seen that intelligence promoting drugs are usually agnivardhak and this agni is sadhakagni. (Sadhak is one of the types of pitta). A person of piña prakruti has sharp agni. He/she feels more thirsty and more hungry. Pitta prakruti people are intelligent.

Dosage— Powder 3-5g. oil 5-15 drops

Dosha Kaphavataghna (oil) ,,piña and agni vardhak.
Dhatu : Majja.
Purisha (sara), sweda (10-20 drops).
Its best action is seen on the nervous system.
Organ : Stomach
 Indications— Kustha, Vatavyadhi, Udara, Gulma
Important research work going on
1. skin diseases
2. antispermatogenic effect

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Artava ksaya— Consumption of Jyotismati leaves (fried) along with Kanjika relieves amenorrhoea (C.D.).
(2) Sidgma— Jyotismati oil processed with Apamarga ksãra jala for 7 times may be applied locally (A.H.Ci.19). -
(3) Udara— Jyotismati oil, Sarjaksãra and Hingu should be taken with milk (S.S.Ci.14).


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Botanical Name— Azadirachta indica A. Juss

Names in different languages
Hindi- Nim; English- Margosa tree or Neem tree; Telugu-Vepachettu; Malayalam-Veppu; Tamil-Vembu; Gujarati-Limado

Synonyms—Arita, Picumarda, Picumanda, Sarvatobhadra,
Hinguniryasa,Yavanesta,Sukapriya, Netã, Subhadra, Prabhadra, Sutiktã.

Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

Caraka           Kandughna, Tiktaskandha

Susruta          Aragvadhadi, Gudücyãdi, Lãksãdi

Vagbhata         Aragvadhadi, Guducyadi, Lãksãdi

       This plant very useful in skin disease. it  used as biological pesticide. Seed oil using for hair fall. 

Varieties & adulterants  - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 

1.Nimba = Azadirachta indica
2. Parvata Nimba = Melia azaderach Linn.
3.Mahã Nimba = Ailanthus exelsa( see disc 2)

It is a large tree growing up to 18 m. high with almost a straight trunk.
Leaves- pinnate, crowded at the ends, of branches; leaflets 9-17, opposite, sub opposite or alternate; lanceolate, acuminate, serrate or dentate, glabrous.

Flowers-numerous, white, honey-scented.
Fruits- 1- seeded drupes, oblong, yellow when ripe.
Seeds contain oil. (Flowers in February-April and fruits during June-August)

Distribution & Habitat
Commonly found in various parts of India.

Chemical constituents—
Leaves— Azadirachtin, azadirachtanin, azadirone, nimbandiol, nimbin, nimbolide etc.
Stem bark— nimbin, nimbidin, nimbinin, sitosterol, kulinone, margosinolide etc. Root bark—nimbin, nimbidin.
Fruits—Azadirachtin, azadirachtol,azadirachnol, melianone, nimbiol, nmocin etc.

Seed oil—Tocopherol, azadirone, azadiradione, nimbinin, salannol, nimbin, nimbidin etc.
Flowers—Azadiradione, margosene, linoleic acid, arachidic acid etc.

Rasa Tikta, Kasaya
Guna Laghu, Rüksa
 Virya  Sita
Vipäka Katu
 Karma Kapha-pittahara, Dipana, Grãhi, Krmighna, Netrya

Internal uses : -
Digestive system By its astringent and bitter property it improves taste and is constipative.
Fruit is purgative.
Leaves are stimulant of liver. Its bark decoction with honey is useful In jaundice, anorexia, vomiting, dysentery, intestinal worms, liver diseases. Ointment prepared from seeds is applied in piles.
Respiratory system : Its property of tikta reduces the kapha from respiratory passage. Leaves are more useful in excessive mucous secretion, Bark decoction is used in chronic cough. 30- 60 cc of liquid collected from the trunk is given in TB.

Urinary system : It is effective in diabetes.
Reproductive system : its seed uterine stimulant. Seed powder is used in dysmenorrhciea and puerpeijum. Continuous use of leaves leads to a decrease in the shukra dhatus. it is a uterine Ionic. Since it is excreted in human milk, it is useful in preventing cough and skin diseases in infants
(so it is called as balant nimba).

Skin : It is useful in all skin conditions specially in burning sensation.
Satmikaran : In general debility, young leaves and gum is useful. The concept behind chewing nimbo leaves on Marathi is to prevent kapha disease. watery discharge from nimba is useful in ematiation and TB. Nimba is best rasayan in medorog flat disorders)

Temperature : Antipuretic. useful in chronic kapha jwara malarial fever & fever.

Eyes : Tender leaves anti flowers are useful in many skin disorders,
 Useful parts Flowers, leaves, bark, seed and oil.

Dosha : Kaphaghna, pittaghna, vatapvardhak.
Dhatu : Rakta, meda. leaves
- shukra.
Mala : Reduces urine. purisha constipation).
Organ : Stomach - eye
Indication- Kãsa, Chardi, Kustha, Krmi, Prameha, Vrana,
 Arsas,gulma,Netra roga Kandu   

Part used  bark,leaves

Dosage: Bark powder 4-10g fresh juice 15-30ml, seed oil 5-10 drops.

Important Yogas or Formations
 Nimbadichurna. Nimbarishta. Nimbaharidra Neem is exclusively found in lndia Does not survive where the rainfall is more than 75 inches Nirnbãdi tailam, Nimbãdi cürnam, Nimbaristarn, Arogyavardhini Ras (Bhãvana dravya), NimbaHaridra khanda, Pañcanimba Clirnam, Arohari, Pañcatikta guggulu ghrta.

Important research work going on

(1) Anti-fertility activity

(2) Anti-inflammatory & anti-arthritic activity

(3) Cardiovascular activity
 (4) Anti-diabetic activity

(5) Skin disorder & Anti-micro activity

(6) CNS depressant activity

(7) Immunostimulant activity

Therapeutic Uses

(1)Skin diseases -  leaves and Amalaki dried fruit are mixed with ghee and given regularly.

(2) jwara—leaf juice


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Botanical Name— Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Z. armatum Dc. or Z. planispinum Sieb &Zucc.)

Names in different languages
Hindi-Tejabala; English- Toothache tree; Bengali- Nepali Dhane
Synonyms—Tumburu, Tejasvini, Tejovati, Vanaja, Sourabha

Scientific classification: Prickly ash species belong to the rue family, Rutaceae. They constitute the genus Zanthoxylum. Northern prickly ash is classified as Zanthoxylum americanum, Southern prickly ash or Hercules’ club as Zanthoxylum claval-herculis, and lime prickly ash as Zanthoxylum fagara. The devil’s walking stick is classified as Aralia spinosa and belongs to the ginseng family, Araliaceae.

Classification according to Caraka, Susruta & Vagbhata
Caraka    Sirovirecana, Katu skandha

Only Vagbhata quoted the synonym Tejini. Tejovati & tumburu names used by Acharyas.

Varieties & adulterants 
1. Kãkamardanikã Cardiospetmum heliCacabum .
2. Zanthoxylum budrunga wall (Z. Rhetsa Dc)
3.  Z. limonella (Dennst.) Alston and
4.  Z. acanthopodium Dc


     A small tree or shrub, with dense foliage and pungent, aromatic taste and smell; prickles often vertically flattened on the trunk and branches, the older with a cocky base.
 Leaves- 4-15 cm, imparipinnate petiole glabrous narrowly winged, with two stipular prickler at the base; leaflets 2-6 pairs, lanceolate, glabrous beneath.
Flowers-in sparse panicles. Ripe carpels usually solitary, laxly panicled, broadly ovoid, pale red.

(Flowers in June-August and fruits in October-November)

Distribution & Habitat  : hot valleys of sub-tropic Himalayas from Jammu to Assam and Khasi hills.

Important Yogas or Formations

Tejovatyadi ghrta,kanakaksiri tailm. Tikteksvadi tailm

 chemical constituents

Bark— berberine, xanthoplanine, magnoflorine
Fruits— arginine, histicline, thujene, xanthoxylene etc.
Root— spilanthol


Rasa       Katu, Tikta
Guna         Laghu, Rüka, Tiksna

Virya           Usna
Vipäka         Katu

Karma          Kapha-vãta hara, Kanthya, Dipafla-Pacana

Part used : leaves. Flowers
Dosage—Powder 1-2 g. (fruit upto 3 gm.)
External uses :
         It is antiparasitic, stimulant and prevents necrosis. Its powder is used for dusting on wound. Local application is used in headache and heaviness of head. Juice is used for gargling in oral, dental and throat disorders.

Internal uses :
Nervous system : Vatahara and nervine stimulant, hence useful in vata disorders (paralysis and rheumatoid arthritis.)
Digestive system : Being an appetizer, digestive, .liver stimulant and anthelmintic. fruit is chewed and kept In mouth for brushing in dental diseases. Tejovha is used in anorexia, diarrhoea, liver and spleen enlargement and haemorrhoids.

Circulatory system : Because of tikshna, ushna and cardiac ‘stimulant properties, it is used in heart diseases
Respiratory system Useful in asthma and cough as it is kaphaghna.
Urinary system Being diuretic It is used in dysuria
Skin : Diaphoretic and cures skin disorders, hence useful in skin diseases.

Temperature   useful in fever
Indications- Hrdröga, Mukha roga, Dantaroga, Kantha roga, Agnimandya Aras, vasa-kãsa, Amavãta, Apatantraka, Udara.

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Mukha roga— Equal parts of Pãhã, Tejovti and Haritaki are powdered mixed with honey and chewed (C.S.Ci.26).

(2) Aras-Tumburu, Vianga, Devadãru and Yava are mixed with ghee and used for fumigation (C.S.Ci.26).
(3) Karna roga—oil prepared with Hingu, Tumburu and sunthi is used as ear drops (C.S.Ci.26).

Anthelminitic activity


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Botanical Name— Commiphora mukul  (Hook. ex. Stocks) Engl. (C. wightii (Arn.)Bhand.)

Names in different languages
Hindi- Guggula; English- Indian Bedellium;
Telugu-Guggilam; Kannada-Kanthagana

Synonyms—Kouika, Devadhüpa, Palarnkasã, Purã

Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

 Caraka   Sañjnasthãpana

 Susrutha      Eladi

Vagbhata    Eladi

 Introduction—Gulggulu is described as ‘Agni sthãna’ and used for ‘Dhupa’. It show antibacterial activity. Resin of this plant uses.

Varieties & adulterants 

1. Mahishaksha - (Mhashya guggul).black. for human use
 2. Mahaneed- blue.
3. Kurnud - white.
4. Padma - brown, for animal use,
5. Kanak - (Kanaguggul) - yellow, for human use.
6. Kana guggul - it is found in marwar, greenish yellow, soft and grannular,
7. Ehaisa (Mhasha) guggul -is found in Sindh and Kutch. greenish yellow but brittle and soft.
8.  Hirayca,

In absence of guggul Commiphora myrrh is used.

Medicinalguggul is known as kanaguggul.

It is a small tree or shrub with spinescent branches.
Leaves- unifoliate, alternate or crowed at the end of short branches, cuneate-obovate, rhomboidal or oval, acute, deeply serrate, smooth and shining.
Flowers- small, subsessile, 2-3 together, unisexual. Males with ovary short and barren; females with short stamens and imperfect anthers. Calyx cylindrical. Petals 4-5, star-shaped, brownish red, trips curled back.
Fruit- red drupes, ovate, acuminate, separating into 2 fleshy valves, leaving the nut enveloped by a 4-cleft yellow pulp. Nuts ovoid, acute, splitting into two, each 1-celled. (Flowers in March-April and Fruits later).

Distribution & Habitat
Arid and rocky regions of South-West and Northwestern regions of India. Sindh, Kutch Mysore, Assam, East Bengal, Arabia and Africa.

Chemical composition Contains essential oil, resin, gum, and bitter Oleoresin- z-guggulsterone, E-guggulsterone Gum- guggullignans I & II; guggulu tetrols; mukulol;allylcembrol; c-27 guggulusterols I, II & III; Z-and E-guggulusterol etc.

Rasa   Tikta, katu
Guna Laghu, Ruksa, Visada, Süksma, Sara (old)
Virya Usna
Vipaka Katu

Karma Tridosahara, Rasayana, Vrsya (new), Lekhana (old)
Cardiogiser CommiphoraMukul

Identification test for purity Pure guggul is singdha, soft, sticky with sweet smell, bitter taste, yellowish tinge, soluble in water, not contaminated with mud or sand. Any variety other than these qualities should be considered as impure. Potency lasts for twenty years.

External uses : Anti inflammatory, analgesic, clearing of wound and healing due to antibacterial action . Paste of guggul is locally applied in rheumatoid arthritis, cervical lymphadenitis, skin diseases, piles etc. It reduces foul smell and swelling of wound. Its vapours are useful as deodorant and disinfectant in the house.
Internal uses:
Nervous system : Valashamak, analgesic, nervine tonic, so guggul is useful in neuralgia, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, facial paralysis. hemiplegia and gout etc. It is welt known and popular medicine for vata disordess. Triphala + guggul is a popular medicine given internatty in wound
Digestive system : It is an appetizer by pungent and bitterness: laxative by snigdha. pichchila and tikshna; liver stimulant. antihaemorrboidal and anthetmintic by bitter and ushna gunas. Hence guggul is useful in loss of appetite constipation, liver diseases, piles and worms

Circulatory system : It is a cardiac tonic. It increases haemoglobin and leucocyte count and enhances blood quality.
Respiratory system : Expectorant being snigdha and pichchila. It is deodorant. anthelmintic. Useful in chronic cough and chronic asthma.

Urinary system : Lithotryptic due to tikshna and diuretic properties. Also useful in dysuria and gonorrhoea.

Reproductive system : Guggul is ushna, tikshna, increases sexual power and acts as an emmenagogue. It is also useful in oligosperima, impotency. dysmenorrhoea, Leucorrhoea and other gynaecological diseases ,infertility.

Satmikaran: Guggul works on all tissues of body and is effective in rejuvenating body tissues and increasing strength. Fresh guggul is useful in weakness and loss of weight, but on becoming old, is useful in diabetes and obesity. It is also a good rasayan in obesity and diseases of vatakapha. It also helps in digestion of oil and ghee.
Skin : Effective in dermatoses, enhances complexion and useful in many skin diseases.
Temperature: Sheetaprashamak by ushna property, its vapours are useful in typhoid. Parts used :
Purification :guggul is purified by boiling in cow’s milk in dolayantra.


Dosha:Kaphaghna, vataghna, pittashodhak and tridoshaghna.
Dhatu : Mansa, meda {brihan - increases body weight), asthi - promotes union of fractures, shukra promotes fertility, rasayan- old -medokarshan.

 Indications_: Medoroga, Amavãta, Vãta vyadhi, Prameha, Apaci, Gandamãlã, Sotha, Pitakã, Ars, Kustha

Part used— Olceo-resin/Gum.
Dosage— 2-4 g.
Important Yogas or Formations
Satdharana yoga, Yogaraja guggulu, Pañca Tikta Guggulu ghtam, Simhanãda guggulu, Cañdraprabhävati, ArOgyavardhini Rasa, Navaka Guggulu, Amrtãdi guggulu, Guggulu Tikta Kasaya, Kãflcanãra guggulu, Kaisora guggulu, Goksurãdi guggulu.

Important research work going on

(1) Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity
(2) Antifertility activity

(3) Anti-atherosclerotic activity

(4) Anti-obesity activity

(5) Hypolipidemic hypocholesterolaemic activity
(6) hypolipaemic activity
(7) hypocholesterolemic activity

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Udara- Guggulu shall be used (C.S.Ci.13).

(2) Kröstuka sirsa vãta— Guggulu may be used with Triphalã decoction (V. M & V. S.)

(3) Urustambha—Guggulu to be taken with cow’s urine (V.M.).

(4) Amavãta—Haritaki, Guggulu and si1ajatu may be given with urine (A.H.Ci.21).