CANGERI

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 CANGERI

Botanical Name—Oxalis corniculata Liñn.
Family-OXALIDACEAE 


Names in different languages
Hindi Tinapattiya; Telugu- Puli chinta; English-Indian sorrel, Tamil Puliyaria; Malayalam- Puliparel;Kannada- Pullamapurachi; Marathi- Ambuti

Synonyms— Amla patrikã, Catuschada, Cukrikã, Dantasatha
Scientific classification: Oxalis is the common name for the family Oxalidaceae. The wood sorrel genus is classified as Oxalis.

Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

Caraka
Sãka varga
Susruta
Sãka varga
Vagbhata
Saka varga


Introduction—Changeri is the one of the most important drugs in Rasa sastra. It included in amla dravyas
Varieties & adulterants  - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 
1 Cukrikã- Rumex vesicarius Linn.
 2.DantaSathã,
3.Ambasthã
4.Amla Lonikã
5.Sunisainah - Marselia quadrifolia
6.Siravãlika - Celosia argentia Linn
7. Oxalis acetosella
8. Marselia minuta

Morphology
An appressed -pubescent, diffuse, perennial, creeping herb.
 Leaves- palmately 3- foliolate, long-petioled, stipulate; leaflets cordate.
Flowers-yellow, borne in 2-8 flowered umbelliform inflorescence.
Fruits- subcylindric. tomentose or glabrous, 5-angles capsules.
Seeds- numerous, transversely ribbed, dark-brown. 


Chemical composition : It contains potassium and oxalic acid. Malic  acid, tartaric, citric acids, vitexin, isovitexin etc.


Properties—

Rasa              Amla, Kasäya
Guna         Laghu, Rüksa
Virya Usna
Vipãka Amla
Karma
Kapha-vata hara, Dipana, Grãhi,



Internal uses
Nervous system : Juice is given in alcoholism.
Digestive system :, It is  liver stimulant and astringent therefore useful in distaste, anorexia, haemorrhoids, dysentery, rectal prolapse.


Circulatory system : Cardiotonic and haemostatic. It is vasoconstrictor



Temperature : Ushna veerya but cool to touch
Satmikaran : Antidote for intoxicants, mainly dhattura seeds.

Important Yogas or Formations
Changed ghrita.


Srotogamitva .
Dosha Alleviates kapha and vata and vitiates pitta (by ushna veerya),
Dhatu :,meda - useful in rectal prolapse and strengthens muscles.
Mala Purisha (constipative).
Organs : Liver (stimulant) intestines.
Part used— Whole plant

Dosage— Fresh juice 6-12  ml.

Indications— Grahani, Atisãra, Kustha, Arsas

Important research work going on
1. Action on GI tract
2. Anti bacterial action
3. Action on nerve fibers


Therapeutic  Uses— 

(1) Unmãda- Juice of Changeri, Kañijika and jaggery (equal parts) shall be add together and administered orally .

(2) Arsas - The leaves of Trivrt, Dañti, Cangeri arid Citraka are fried in a mixture of ghee and gingely oil. Then they are mixed with curd and taken orally (C.S.Ci.14)

GOKSURA

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 GOKSURA

Botanical Name—Tribulus terrestris
Family-ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 


Names in different languages
Hindi-Gokharu; English- Cow hage; Telugu- Palleru; Tamil- Neringil.malayalm - gnarennil

Synonyms—Iksugandhika, vadañstrã, Trikantaka, Svãdukañtka, Palañkasã



Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

Caraka           Sothahara, Mutravirecaniya, Krmighna
Susruta    Vidarigandhadi, Viratarvãdi, Laghu Pañcamüla Viratarvadi                  

Vagbhata         Vidarigaiidhadi,

Introduction—it is the one of the important mutrala drugs in Ayurveda.



Varieties & adulterants  - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 
1.Pedalium murex Linn
2. T. terrestris
3.xanthium strumarium
4.Martynia diandra
5.Acanthospermum hispidium




Morphology


(i) T. terrestris—A small, prostrate, hirsute or silky hairy herb.
Leaves-stipulate, opposite, usually unequal , pinnate; leaflets 5-8 pairs, oblong, mucronate.
Flowers solitary, axillary or leaf-opposed, yellow or white. Fruits-globose, hairy, 5-angled, spinous with 2 long and 2 short spines on each cocci.
Seeds- obliquely pendulous. (Flowers and fruits during April- September).

(ii) P. murex— A glabrous annual herb.
Leaves- opposite or alternate, petioled irregularly toothed or almost lobed.
Flowers solitary, axillary, with 2 glands at the base. Calyx small 5-partite. Corolla yellow. Stamens 4, included, Ovary 2-called.
Fruits-hard indehiscent, pyramidal-ovoid capsules with 4 patent spines from base.



chemical constituents—
 (T. terrestris) Fruits—Chlorogenin, diosgenin, gitogenin, rutin, rhamnose
Roots—Campesterol, beta—sitosterol and stignasterol, neotigogenin Aerial parts— astragalin, dioscin, diosgenin, hecogenin, ruscogenin, trillin, furostanol glycoside, spirosterol saponin; terrestrosides A-F saponins C and G etc.


Properties—

Guna   Guru, Snigdha
Vipaka Madhura
Rasa Madhura
Virya Sita

Karma Vãta-pitta hara, Vrsya, Mutrala, Rasayana

External use : Leaves are tied on wounds.

Internal uses:

Nervous system : Analgesic and vatashamak. Therefore used in neural debility,’ painful conditions and vata disorders. -
Digestive system : Stomachic, astringent, anthelmintic, but laxative in large dose., appetite, piles and helminthiasis.

Circulatory system : It is a cardio tonic, anti-inflammatory and helps in haemorrhagic
Fruit juice is useful in amoebiasis and splenomegaly.

Respiratory system :- used in cough and asthma.
Reproductive system : useful in preventing abortion, vaginal disorders, impotency and post-natal discharges.
Urinary system : Diuretic, dissolves calculi and amorphous calculi. Therefore useful in urinary calculi, dysuria and cystitis,
Satmikaran: Useful in debility

Indications— Mütrakrichra, Prameha, Hrdroga, Aras, vãsa-Kãsa

Parts used : Fruit, root, pentad.


Dosage— Decoction 50-100 ml, powder 3-6 g.



Important research work  going on


(1) Anti-cancer activity

(2)Action  nervous system

(3) action in liver



Therapeutic uses—

(1) Vãjikarana— Powder of Goksura fruit is boiled with milk and consumed

(2) Amavãta— Decoction of Sunthi and Goksura  will be of useful (C. D.)

(3) Kesa Vardhana— Göksura and the flowers of Tila are applied externally by making them into paste using honey (Sa. Sam.)

SALMALI

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 SALMALI

Botanical    Name— Bombax malabaricum
Family-.BOMBOCACEAE


Names in different languages
Hindi-semal; English-silk cotton tree; Telugu-Bürugu cettu, Malayalam – mullilave
Synonyms—Kantakandya, Moca, Moca rasa Raktapupa, Sthirãyu.


Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata
Caraka          Purisa virajaniya, Sonitãsthãpana,Vedanãsthapana,
                        Kasãya skandha .. 

Susruta           Priyangvadi

Vägbhata



Introduction—
The thorns are pounded with milk is a famous remedy for Acne infestation. Its fruit is poisonous.



Varieties & adulterants 

1.Sãlmali - Bombax malabaricum Dc
2.Küta Sãlmali - Ceiba pentandra (Linn.)


Morphology

(i) S. malabarica— A
large deciduous tree, armed with prickles. Leaves-digitately compound, deciduous.
Flowers-crimson red, axillary or subterminal, solitary or clustered, appearing before the leaves. Bark-grey. Stamens many.
Fruit-a 5-valued capsule; valves woody. Seeds-many, globose, pale black, (Flowers in spring and early summer and fruits during winter).

(ii) C. pentandra— A medium-sized deciduous tree, 16- 30m. high. It yields dark-red, almost opaque gum. Bark-grey or green when young.
Leaves-digitally compound, deciduous.
Flowers-white, tufted . the end of branches or axillary. Fruit- oblong, 5-valved capsule, 12.2 x 5.2 cm. size. (flowers during January-February and fruits in March-April).


Chemical composition : Seeds contain stable oil. Mocharas has tannic acid and gallic acid.
Bark exudate (simul gum) gallic & tannic acids, Dgalactopyranose etc.
Bark-root bark-seeds- lupeol.
Flowers- hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, gossypol etc.


Properties—
 Rasa Kasaya
Guna Laghu, Snigdha
Virya sita
Vipãka Madhura

Karma Pitta-vãta hara, Vrsya, Balya, Grãhi, Rasãyana
Distribution & Habitat
All over India, Sri lanka, Myanmas, Sumatra etc.


External uses

Bark — ant inflammatory, reduces burning sensation;
flowers — haemostatic. mocharas - astringent and used in wound healing:

In external bleeding — local application of flower juice or powder is done on the wound. Mocharas is used in oral ulcers ,local application on the face in discolouration and hyperpigmentation



Internal uses

Digestive system : Mocharas is astringent in property. So it is used in malena. diarrhoea, pravahika, raktaja pravahika, grahani, bleeding piles and other bleeding disorders
 Circulatory system : Flowers and mocharos are used as haemostatic.

Bombax ceiba


Respiratory system : As raw fruit is astringent hence is used in cough

Srotogamitva
Dosha :
Vitiates kapha. pittavatanashak.
Mocharas : Kapha pittaghna.
Dhats, : Vitiates blood, reduces meda, shuki’a (virtilizer), rasayani.
Mala : Purisha (reduces motility), (virajaneeya). (malena); mutra
(raw fruit)
Organs : Liver, spleen.
Mocharas : Vata shaman.
Datu : Rakta.
Mala : Purishagrahi reduces motility).




External uses

Bark — an inflammatory, reduces burning sensation; flowers — haemostatic. used in wound healing: thorns - Ickhan and frnproves complexion In external bleeding — local application of flower juice or powder is done on the wound. Mocharas is used in oral ulcers and in tooth powder A paste ot the thorns prepared in milk is used ior local application on the face in discolouration and hyper pigmentation It is used in pichcha basti

Internal uses
Digestive system : Mocharas is astringent in property. So it is used in malena. diarrhoea, pravah&a, raktaj pravahika, grahani, bleeding piles and other bleeding disorders Circulatory system : Flowers and mocharos are used as haemostatic.

Respiratory system : As raw fruit is astringent, it tones up the mused oil the throat and hence is used in cough
Part Used—Root, Stem bark, flowers, petioles, spines, gum, unripe/tender fruits (Marathimogga)

Dosage—Root powder 3-5 g; gum 1-3 g; flower juice 10-20 ml Indications—Rakta pitta, Pravahika, Atisãra, Rakta Pradara
Important research work going on
1.piles treatment


Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Atisara— Cold infusion of
a1mali petioles should be given with Yastimadhu and honey (S.S.Ut.40)

(2) Vrana— SalmaIi bark and Balã root etc., shall be applied externally (C.S.Ci.25)

(3) Pradara—flowers are cooked with ghee and rock salt and given orally as vegetable dish (B. P.)