DARU HARIDRA

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DARU HARIDRA

Cosinium fenestratum—South India
Berberis aristata  - North India


Botanical Name— Cosinium fenestratum

Family-MENISPERMACEAE




Botanical Name— Berberis aristata Dc.

Family-BERBERIDACEAE 
 







Cosinium fenestratum


Names in different languages

Hindi-Daruhaldi,English-Indian Berbery; Telugu-Mani pasupa
Tamil - Mara Manzal

Synonyms- Dãru nisã, Pita dãru, Pacampaca, Katañkateri, Parjani, Darvi.

Scientific classification: Barberries make up the family Berberidaceae. The representative genus is Berberis. The common barberry is classified as Berberis vulgaris, the American barberry as Berberis canadensis, and the Colorado barberry as Berberis fendleri. The Japanese barberry is classified as Berberis thunbergii, the Magellan barberry as Berberis buxifolia, and the wintergreen barberry as Berberis julianae.Indian Barberries as Barberies aristata.


Classification according to Caraka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

Caraka         -Arsoghna, Kandüghna, Lekhaniya Läksadi
Susruta       -      Haridrãdi, Mustadi
Vãgbhata    -    Haridrãdi, Mustadi,

Introduction
          Usually ‘Dãruharidrã’ along with Haridrã uses external application. Cocinium fenestratum (MENISPERMACEA) is used in South India as Dãruharidrã but in North India Berberis aristata uses as Dãruharidrã.





Varieties & adulterants  - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 
Plants using in South India & North India are well identified, there is no confusion of this two drugs.
 (1) The rocky mountain group B. aquifolium Pursh
(2) Dãruharidrã   - The Asiatic group i.e.; B. aristata
(3) The European group i.e.; B. vulgaris Linn.
(4)Berberis chitra.
(5)Berberis lycium.
(6) Kãliyaka  - Cosinium fenestratum   – South India


Morphology

B. aristata-
A large deciduous shrub, 2-3.6m high. Twigs whitish or pale yellowish brown,
Leaves- 4-10 cm by 1.5-3 cm, obovate or elliptic, entire or toothed, base gradually narrowed, dark green above, pale beneath. Petiole 0-3 mm.
Inflorescence a simple drooping raceme, 3-6 cm. long. Densely flowered.

Fruit 7- 10 mm. long, ovoid, blue-black, distinct style.

Distribution- Himalayas

C. fenestratum- A climbing shrub. Branches covered with fuscous-cinerous bark, striate, when young yellow-tomentose. Leaves- coriaceous, shining above and tomentose beneath, rotund-ovate or broadly cordate, 15-25 by 12-25 cm. Inflorescences axillary with yellow flowers.
Habitat - south Indi
chemical constituents

       B. aristata-
Karachine (a protoberberine alkaloid), taxilamine, berberine, palmatine,jatrorrhizine, oxycanthine.
C. fenestratum– menispermine,Berberine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berlambine, oxypalmatine

Cosinium fenestratum

Properties—

Rasa Tikta, Kasaya
Guna Laghu, Rüksa
 Virya Usna
 Vipäka Katu
 Karma Kapha-pittahara, Chedana

 Indications— Prameha, Kustha, Netra roga, veta pradara, Kãmalã, Vrana, Visarpa,



External uses : Reduces inflammation or oedema. removes pain, cures and heals ulcers, also used for eye diseases like conjunctivitis, as rasanjan.
Internal uses

Digestive system : liver stimulant. A larger dose is laxative. The fruit is very tasty. Daruharidra is a superior medicine in agnimandya, dysentery, jaundice and other liver disorders.

Circulatory system Blood purifier and haemostatic agent. haridra acts on rakta dhatu.
Respiratory system It is useful in the treatment of cough
Reproductive system Useful in uterine inflammations and vaginal discharges.
 Skin : Daruharidra decoction is useful in cleaning wounds. . It is  useful in ulcer.
Temperature : Diaphoretic and is a prophylactic treatment for typhoid, hence it is useful in common fever This preserves and increases the patient’s strength.



Satmikaran : It is bitter, and strengthening.


Important Yogas or Formations
Darvyadikwath, Darwadilaila. Rasanjanshuddhi Rasanjan


Srotogamitva
Dosha Reduces kapha.
Dhatu Meda, rasayan.
Mala : Mutra - purisha - sweda.,
Organs Eyes, liver. spleen and skin.



Part Used-
Root, Stem, Fruit - extract (Rasãnjana)

Dosage- Decoction 50-1OOml;
 fruit powder 5-lOg; extract-3g.
Important research work going on
1.Anti bacterial activity
2.wound healing property




Therapeutic Uses—

(1) svëta pradara-
Decoction of Dãruharidrã is given with honey (G.N.)
(2) meha- Decoction of Haridrã and Dãrtiharidrä is useful (S.S.Ci.)
(3) Vrddhi (kaphaja)- Däruharidrä paste is taken with cow’s urine (Vr.Mã.)
(4) Mütrákrichra- Juice of Dãruharidrã and Amalaki with honey (C.SCi.26)

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